REIT Taxation: A Canadian Guide

Dividend Earner

Dividend Earner

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6 min read Affiliate Disclosure

Real Estate Income Trusts, or REITs for short, are companies that own or finance income-producing real estate. They receive special tax considerations and tend to have a higher distribution yield than corporations.

Real estate assets can range from shopping malls, to apartment buildings, to office properties, or a mixed of the different assets. Due to the REIT structure and tax code, REIT taxation for investors in Canada differs from dividends and warrant a good understanding by individual investors. See below for the Canadian break down by sub-industries.

While REITs are meant to be tax-efficient businesses, their distributions are not tax-efficient in the way that dividends from corporations are.

REIT Distributions

Before we dive into the tax impact of holding a REIT in a non-registered account, you need to understand the difference between dividends and distributions.

If you look at the information provided on a REIT website such as RioCan, you can see that they mention distribution and not dividends. It simply means that the company’s distribution to investors is not considered an eligible dividend from a tax perspective.

Dividends are reported on a T5 form, while distributions are reported on a T3 form (see below). It is possible to receive some dividends from a REIT and if so, it will be included as one of the sources of income and also be reported on the T3 with the gross-up information needed.

T3 Form

RioCan clearly outlines the ratios of the following income sources on their site. There can be up to 6 different sources identified, and all companies paying a distribution, not a dividend, will also outline the source..

Holding a REIT investment is not a concern in a tax-free account, such as a TFSA, RRSP/RRIF, or RESP, since you don’t have to pay any taxes, but it has implications and considerations in a non-registered account.

Not only because you declare the distribution as income on your taxes but because there also can be a return of capital (ROC), that impacts your accounting. Note that ROC from REITs is the most tax-efficient payout as the distribution is converted into a potential capital gain to be paid later at the time of disposition.

ROC, however, makes your accounting so much harder. It’s better to hold in your TFSA or RRSP account.

When investing in the best Canadian REIT, if you plan on holding it in a non-registered account, you need to compare the net income from the REIT you have in mind with a good high-yield stock such as BCE. The tax considerations can make both investments the same in the end.

REIT Taxation (in Canada)

Income Tax Treatment on Investment AccountsIncome tax on REITs is actually pretty simple to understand, however, the tracking of the details year after year is where the challenge is.

The reduction in adjusted cost base (ACB) is what creates a tracking challenge. In the RioCan example above, you can see a pretty large ratio of return of capital (ROC – another name for the adjusted ACB) and that changes the cost of your investment.

You need to adjust the cost of your holdings every time you receive the T3. Therefore, you need to be diligent with your tracking, as you will have to report capital gains later. It’s even possible that the share cost ends up at $0 if you hold the REIT for long enough.

It’s important to note that none of the tax considerations below apply when you hold REIT investments in a tax-sheltered account. You may also need to consider that withdrawals from an RRSP are treated as income, and your marginal tax rate will apply.

TIP: The complexity of the T3 information, and more specifically, the ROC, will require you to track a lot of information about your holdings in a spreadsheet.

REIT Tax Breakdown

Other Income: This amount represents the revenue you get from the REIT as part of their operating business. Think of this income as the rental revenue from the holdings. This income is taxed at your marginal tax rate, just like interest would be taxed.

Capital Gains: The capital gains reported is generally taxed at half your marginal tax rate. It is also said that you are taxed on 50% of the capital gains at your marginal tax rate.

Foreign Non-Business Income: When a REIT holds US or foreign properties, the foreign revenue is reported as Foreign Non-Business Income and is taxed at your marginal tax rate. It usually represents the rental income from foreign holdings.

Return of Capital: This amount is the company giving you your money back. There is no immediate tax to pay on it as it simply reduces the cost of the share. It requires a good stock tracking system. ROC is a reduction in adjusted cost base (or ACB). For example, if you paid a REIT share $10, and the REIT has an ROC of $0.50 per share, your new cost is $9.50 per share. As you can see in the RioCan distribution above, the ROC ratio of a distribution can be significant.

This is why I don’t hold REITs in a non-registered account. The tracking is a lot of work, even though I am well set to track my investment portfolio. However, it can be more efficient from a tax perspective since capital gains are one of the more favourable tax treatments. You simply need to decide on putting the effort to track all of the transactions from DRIP and ROC when it’s provided to you.

Dividend & Distribution Tax Summary

Canadian DividendsPreferred Canadian Dividend Tax RateNo TaxesNo TaxesNo TaxesTSE:RY
Canadian Distributions (REITs, Income Trusts)Normal income and Capital Gains taxes can apply.No TaxesNo TaxesNo TaxesTSE:REI.UN
US Dividends15% Withheld – Foreign Tax Credit can be claimed. Income tax rate applies.15% Withheld – No Foreign Tax CreditNo Taxes15% Withheld – No Foreign Tax CreditNYSE:JNJ
US Distributions (MLPs)39.6% Withheld – Foreign Tax Credit can be claimed. Income tax rate applies.39.6% Withheld – No Foreign Tax Credit39.6% Withheld – No Foreign Tax Credit39.6% Withheld – No Foreign Tax CreditNYSE:MMP